Prior to Piye's Year 20 campaign into Egypt, the previous Nubian ruler – Kashta – had already extended his kingdom's influence over into Thebes when he compelled Shepenupet, the serving Divine Adoratice of Amun and Takelot III's sister, to adopt his own daughter Amenirdis, to be her successor.
Then, 20 years later, around 732 BC his successor, Piye, marched North and defeated the combined might of several native Egyptian rulers: Peftjaubast, Osorkon IV of Tanis, Iuput II of Leontopolis and Tefnakht of Sais.
But many aspects of life for ordinary Egyptians changed relatively little.
The period of the Twenty-First Dynasty is characterized by the country's fracturing kingship.
He was succeeded first by his brother, Shabaka, and then by his two sons Shebitku and Taharqa respectively.Upper Egypt remained for a time under the rule of Tantamani, whilst Lower Egypt was ruled from 664 BC by the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, client kings established by the Assyrians who nevertheless managed to successfully bring about Egypt's political independence during the time of troubles facing the Assyrian empire.In 656 BC Psamtik I occupied Thebes and became Pharaoh, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, bringing increased stability to the country in a 54-year reign from the city of Sais.Four successive Saite kings continued guiding Egypt into another period of peace and prosperity from 610 to 525 BC.Unfortunately for this dynasty, a new power was growing in the Near East – Persia.Despite Egypt's size and wealth, Assyria had a greater supply of timber, while Egypt had a chronic shortage, allowing Assyria to produce more charcoal needed for iron-smelting and thus giving Assyria a greater supply of iron weaponry.